Friday, June 12, 2009

Spectral Awareness – How to Implement

Cognitive Radio promotes the concept of using unused spectrum to increase available bandwidth. The basic techniques for finding and managing a portion of spectrum are listed below:

Step 1: Find a frequency. Using Adaptive Frequency techniques, a series of frequencies are scanned.

Step 2: Find an unused time slot in between a periodic user. Typically an Adaptive TDMA technique is used to check the availability of the frequency by monitoring it through several cycles. Only measuring the energy in the channel doesn’t give an accurate reading as noise can appear to be a signal.


Step 3: Use spatial techniques to monitor the spectrum -= The two main techniques are - beam steering and null steering which changes the main lobe of the radiation pattern to focus in a specific area.

Step 4: Use Adaptive bit loading based on Signal to Noise Ratio to insert a signal into the unused spectrum. OFDM techniques can be used that fit the time-frequency/hole.

Step5: Perform interference suppression and multiuser decomposition.

Adaptive Power Control and Ad-Hoc Networks are important for managing the above steps.

Best regards,
Hall T.

8 Comments:

Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

ninest123 10.14
burberry handbags, ray ban sunglasses, michael kors outlet online, replica watches, michael kors outlet, louis vuitton, uggs outlet, longchamp outlet, longchamp outlet, polo ralph lauren outlet online, michael kors outlet, uggs on sale, michael kors outlet online, oakley sunglasses wholesale, christian louboutin outlet, longchamp outlet, ugg boots, gucci handbags, uggs outlet, christian louboutin shoes, tory burch outlet, michael kors outlet online, prada handbags, tiffany and co, replica watches, louis vuitton outlet, burberry outlet, ray ban sunglasses, chanel handbags, louis vuitton outlet, louis vuitton outlet, nike air max, nike air max, oakley sunglasses, ugg boots, nike outlet, jordan shoes, oakley sunglasses, prada outlet, cheap oakley sunglasses, louis vuitton, christian louboutin, tiffany jewelry, oakley sunglasses, christian louboutin uk, michael kors outlet store, ray ban sunglasses, polo outlet

Tuesday, October 13, 2015 8:10:00 PM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

nike free run, coach outlet, burberry pas cher, new balance, polo lacoste, ray ban uk, louboutin pas cher, timberland pas cher, vans pas cher, coach outlet store online, converse pas cher, north face uk, north face, michael kors, jordan pas cher, hogan outlet, true religion jeans, nike blazer pas cher, nike air force, nike air max uk, sac vanessa bruno, air max, nike roshe, coach purses, oakley pas cher, nike tn, true religion outlet, ray ban pas cher, abercrombie and fitch uk, hollister pas cher, sac longchamp pas cher, ralph lauren uk, michael kors pas cher, longchamp pas cher, nike roshe run uk, lululemon canada, nike free uk, michael kors outlet, coach outlet, true religion outlet, guess pas cher, nike air max uk, mulberry uk, nike air max, polo ralph lauren, kate spade, true religion outlet, sac hermes, hollister uk, michael kors

Tuesday, October 13, 2015 8:15:00 PM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

p90x workout, ralph lauren, vans outlet, mont blanc pens, herve leger, soccer jerseys, hermes belt, north face outlet, babyliss, celine handbags, timberland boots, iphone 6 cases, nike air max, gucci, instyler, mac cosmetics, bottega veneta, mcm handbags, baseball bats, abercrombie and fitch, hollister, chi flat iron, louboutin, asics running shoes, wedding dresses, longchamp uk, vans, ghd hair, nike trainers uk, beats by dre, nfl jerseys, giuseppe zanotti outlet, lululemon, converse outlet, converse, nike air max, oakley, new balance shoes, ray ban, hollister, hollister clothing, nike roshe run, insanity workout, ferragamo shoes, valentino shoes, nike huaraches, north face outlet, reebok outlet, soccer shoes, jimmy choo outlet, nike free, kate spade outlet

Tuesday, October 13, 2015 8:21:00 PM  
Blogger ninest123 Ninest said...

canada goose, thomas sabo, canada goose jackets, canada goose, louis vuitton, swarovski crystal, montre pas cher, louis vuitton, toms shoes, ugg,ugg australia,ugg italia, marc jacobs, wedding dresses, lancel, ugg,uggs,uggs canada, hollister, pandora jewelry, michael kors outlet, canada goose, canada goose outlet, louis vuitton, supra shoes, doudoune moncler, pandora charms, moncler outlet, juicy couture outlet, moncler, moncler, canada goose uk, moncler outlet, louis vuitton, replica watches, links of london, doke gabbana, canada goose outlet, ugg pas cher, michael kors handbags, louis vuitton, moncler, michael kors outlet online, swarovski, barbour uk, juicy couture outlet, pandora uk, ugg, karen millen uk, ugg uk, pandora jewelry, coach outlet, moncler, moncler uk, canada goose outlet, barbour
ninest123 10.14

Tuesday, October 13, 2015 8:24:00 PM  
Blogger 柯云 said...

2015-11-24 keyun
ugg australia
michael kors outlet
michael kors outlet
adidas outlet store
true religion
michael kors uk
coach outlet
louis vuitton
longchamp handbags
michael kors handbags
louis vuitton
burberry outlet online
michael kors uk
instyler max
prada outlet
coach outlet store online
mont blanc pens
moncler jackets
coach factory outlet
gucci
nike store
mcm outlet
jordan 4
louis vuitton handbags
fitflops clearance
nike outlet
michael kors handbags
louis vuitton handbags
moncler outlet
toms outlet
nike air max
kate spade outlet
nike air max shoes
michael kors uk
canada goose uk
ugg outlet store
jordan 3
ugg boots
pandora jewelry
ghd

Monday, November 23, 2015 7:33:00 PM  
Blogger Minko Chen said...

ugg outlet store
abercrombie and fitch
winter jackets
nike air max
michael kors wallet sale
longchamp handbags
true religion canada
oakley sunglasses
air max shoes
lebron shoes
timberland shoes
beats by dre
michael kors uk outlet
black friday deals
ed hardy clothing
kobe shoes
links of london jewellery
giuseppe zanotti outlet
longchamp handbags
michael kors factory online

Monday, November 30, 2015 1:52:00 AM  
Blogger John said...

louis vuitton
nike roshe run
michael kors outlet clearance
adidas originals
tiffany and co
nike free run
gucci handbags
retro jordans
fitflops
kd shoes
ray-ban sunglasses
abercrombie
cheap ugg boots
uggs clearance
canada goose
cheap nfl jerseys
canada goose outlet
louis vuitton
michael kors outlet
canada goose jackets
toms shoes
ugg boots on sale
louis vuitton outlet
louis vuitton outlet
louis vuitton
oakley sunglasses
nike air force 1
20151204yuanyuan

Friday, December 04, 2015 12:33:00 AM  
Blogger 1111141414 said...

michael kors factory outlet
adidas ultra boost 3.0
michael kors outlet handbags
jordan retro
chrome hearts
nike air force 1 high
yeezy
links of london sale
yeezy shoes
nike roshe run

Monday, June 19, 2017 4:18:00 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home